The Climate Dimension: ReferencesAkkemik, U., Aras, A. 2005. Reconstruction (1689-1994 AD) of April-August precipitation in the southern part of central Turkey. International Journal of Climatology, 25: 537-548.

Akkemik, U., D'Arrigo, R., Cherubini, P., Kose, N., Jacoby, G.C. 2008. Tree-ring reconstructions of precipitation and streamflow for north-western Turkey. International Journal of Climatology, 28:173-183.

Arz, H.W., Lamy, F., Pätzold, J., Müller, P. J., Prins, M. 2003. Mediterranean moisture source for an early-Holocene humid period in the northern Red Sea. Science, 300:118-121.

Austin, P., Mackay, A., Palagushkina, O., Leng, M. 2007. A high-resolution diatominferred palaeoconductivity and lake level record of the Aral Sea for the last 1600 yr. Quaternary Research, 67: 383-393.

Battarbee, R. et al.,, (eds.) 2004 Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa.Springer 638 pp.

Bottema, S. 1995. Holocene vegetation of the Van area: palynological and chronological- evidence from Sögütlü, Turkey. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 4:187-193.

Combourieu-Nebout, N., Paterne, M., Turon, J.L., Siani, G. 1998. A high-resolution record of the last deglaciation in the Central Mediterranean Sea: Palaeovegetation and palaeohydrological evolution. Quaternary Science Reviews, 17:303-317.

Constantin, S., Bojar, A.V., Lauritzen, S.E., Lundberg, J. 2007. Holocene and Late Pleistocene climate in the sub-Mediterranean continental environment: A speleothem record from Poleva Cave (Southern Carpathians, Romania). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 243:322-338.

Costanza et al., 2007: Sustainability or Collapse: What can we learn from integrating the history of humans and the rest of the nature? Ambio 36, 522.

Eastwood, W.J., Leng, M.J., Roberts, N., Davies, B. 2007. Holocene climate change in the eastern Mediterranean region: a comparison of stable isotope and pollen data from Lake Gölhisar, southwest Turkey. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22(4):327-341.

Emeis, K.-C., Struck, U., Schulz, H.-M., Rosenberg, R., Bernasconi, S., Erlenkeuser, H., Sakamoto, T., Martinez-Ruiz, F. 2000. Temperature and salinity variations of Mediterranean Sea surface waters over the last 16,000 years from records of planktonic stable oxygen isotopes and alkenone unsaturation ratios. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 158:259-280.

Fairchild, I.J. , C.L. Smith, A. Baker, L. Fuller, C. Spötl, D. Mattey, F. McDermott, 2006. Modification and preservation of environmental signals in speleothems, Earth-Science Reviews 75, 105-153.

Felis, T., Pätzold, J., Loya, Y., Fine, M., Nawar, A.H., Wefer, G. 2000. A coral oxygen isotope record from the northern Red Sea documenting NAO, ENSO, and North Pacific teleconnections on Middle East climate variability since the year 1750. Paleoceanography, 15:679-694.

Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mangini, A., Mudelsee, M., Kramers, J., Villa, I., Neff, U., Al-Subbary, A.A., Buettner, A., Hippler, D., Matter, A. 2007. Holocene ITCZ and Indian monsoon dynamics recorded in stalagmites from Oman and Yemen (Socotra). Quaternary Science Reviews, 26:170-188.

Frumkin, A., Carmi, I., Gopher, A., Ford, D.C., Schwarcz, H.P., Tsuk, T. 1999a. A Holocene millennial-scale climatic cycle from a speleothem in Nahal Qanah Cave, Israel. Holocene, 9:677-682.

Frumkin, A., Ford, D.C., Schwarcz, H.P. 1999b. Continental oxygen isotopic record of the last 170,000 years in Jerusalem. Quaternary Research, 51:317- 327.

Goodfriend, G.A. 1999. Terrestrial stable isotope records of Late Quaternary paleoclimates in the eastern Mediterranean region. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18:501-513.

Griggs, C., Degaetano, A., Kuniholm, P., Newton, M. 2007. A regional highfrequency reconstruction of May-June precipitation in the north Aegean from oak tree rings, AD 1089-1989. International Journal of Climatology, 27:1075-1089.

Gvirtzman, G., Wieder, M. 2001. Climate of the last 53,000 Years in the eastern Mediterranean, based on soil-sequence Stratigraphy in the coastal plain of Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20:1827-1849.

Hunt, C.O., Elrishi, H.A., Gilbertson, D.D., Grattan, J.P., McLaren, S.J., Pyatt, F.B., Rushworth, G., Barker, G.W. 2004. Early-Holocene environments in the Wadi Faynan, Jordan. The Holocene, 14:921-930.

IPCC 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge UP, UK and NY, USA; Johnsen, S.J., DahlJensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Steffensen, J.P., Clausen, H.B., Miller, H., Masson-Delmotte, V., Sveinbjornsdottir, A.E., White, J. 2001. Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP, GISP2, Renland and NorthGRIP. Journal of Quaternary Science, 16(4): 299-307.

Jones, M.D., Roberts, C.N., Leng, M.J., Turkes, M. 2006. A high-resolution late Holocene lake isotope record from Turkey and links to North Atlantic and monsoon climate. Geology, 34:361-364.

Kaniewski, D., Paulissen, E., De Laet, V., Dossche, K., Waelkens, M. 2007. A highresolution Late Holocene landscape ecological history inferred from an intramontane basin in the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26:2201-2218.

Landmann, G., Abu Qudaira, G.M., Shawabkeh, K., Wrede, V., Kempe, S. 2002. Geochemistry of the Lisan and Damya Formations in Jordan, and implications for palaeoclimate. Quaternary International, 89:45-57.

Lawson, I.T., Al-Omari, S., Tzedakis, P.C., Bryant, C.L., Christanis, K. 2005. Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation history at Nisi Fen and the Boras mountains, northern Greece. The Holocene, 15:873-887.

Lawson, I.T., Frogley, M., Bryant, C.L., Preece, R., Tzedakis, P.C. 2004. The Lateglacial and Holocene environmental history of the Ioannina basin, northwest Greece. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23:1599-1625.

McDermott, F. 2004. Palaeo-climate reconstruction from stable isotope variations in speleothems: a review, Quaternary Science Reviews 23, 901-918.

McIntosh, RJ et al.,,, (eds.) 2000: The way the wind blows: climate, history, and human action. New York. Columbia UP.

McLaren, S.J., Gilbertson, D.D., Grattan, J.P., Hunt, C.O., Duller, G.A.T., Barker, G.A. 2004. Quaternary palaeogeomorphologic evolution of the Wadi Faynan area, southern Jordan. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 205:131-154.

Migowski, C., Stein, M., Prasad, S., Negendank, J.F.W., Agnon, A. 2006. Holocene climate variability and cultural evolution in the Near East from the Dead Sea sedimentary record. Quaternary Research, 66:421-431.

Moustafa, Y.A., Pätzold, J., Loya, Y., Wefer, G. 2000. Mid-Holocene stable isotope record of corals from the northern Red Sea. Journal of Earth Sciences, 88:742-751.

Neumann, F.H., Kagan, E.J., Schwab, M.J., Stein, M. 2007. Palynology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the late Holocene Dead Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26:1476-1498.

Reed, J.M., Roberts, N., Leng, M.J. 1999. An evaluation of the diatom response to Late Quaternary environmental change in two lakes in the Konya Basin, Turkey, by comparison with stable isotope data. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18(4-5):631-646.

Rimbu, N., Felis, T., Lohmann, G., Pätzold, J. 2006. Winter and summer climate patterns in the European-Middle East during recent centuries as documented in a northern Red Sea coral record. The Holocene, 16:321-330.

Roberts, N., Reed, J.M., Leng, M.J., Kuzucuoglu, C., Fontugne, M., Bertaux, J., Woldring, H., Bottema, S., Black, S., Hunt, E., Karabiyikoglu, M. 2001. The tempo of Holocene climatic change in the eastern Mediterranean region: new high-resolution crater-lake sediment data from central Turkey. The Holocene, 11:721-736.

Roberts, N., Stevenson, T., Davis, B., Cheddadi, R., Brewster, S., Rosen, A. 2004. Holocene climate, environment and cultural change in the circum-Mediaterranean region. In: Battarbee, R.W., Gasse, F., Stickley, C.E. (Eds.), Past climate variability through Europe and Africa. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 343-362.

Robinson, S.A., Black, S., Sellwood, B.W., Valdes, P.J. 2006. A review of palaeoclimates and palaeoenvironments in the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean from 25,000 to 5000 years BP: setting the environmental background for the evolution of human civilisation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25:1517-1541.

Rohling, E.J., Mayewski, P.A., Abu-Zeid, R.H., Casford, J.S.L., Hayes, A. 2002. Holocene atmosphere-ocean interactions: records from Greenland and the Aegean Sea. Climate Dynamics, 18:587-593.

Rossignol-Strick, M. 1995. Sea-land correlation of pollen records in the Eastern Mediterranean for the glacial-interglacial transition: Biostratigraphy versus radiometric time-scale. Quaternary Science Reviews, 14:893-915.

Rossignol-Strick, M. 1999. The Holocene climatic optimum and pollen records of sapropel 1 in the eastern Mediterranean, 9000–6000 BP. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18:515-530.

Sangiorgi, F., Capotondi, L., Nebout, N.C., Vigliotti, L., Brinkhuis, H., Giunta, S., Lotter, A.F., Morigi, C., Negri, A., Reichart, G.-J. 2003. Holocene seasonal seasurface temperature variations in the southern Adriatic Sea inferred from a multiproxy approach. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18(8):723-732.

Sbaffi, L., Wezel, F.C., Curzi, G., Zoppi, U. 2004. Millennial- to centennial-scale palaeoclimatic variations during Termination I and the Holocene in the central Mediterranean Sea. Global and Planetary Change, 40:201-217.

Schwab M.J., Neumann, F.H., Litt, T., Negendank, J.F.W., Stein, M. 2004. Holocene palaeoecology of the Golan Heights (Near East): investigation of lacustrine sediments from Birkat Ram crater lake. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23:1723-1731.

Snyder, J.A., Wasylik, K., Fritz, S.C., Wright, H.E. Jr. 2001. Diatom-based conductivity reconstruction and palaeoclimatic interpretation of a 40-ka record from Lake Zeribar, Iran. The Holocene, 11:737-745.

Sperling, M., Schmiedl, G., Hemleben, C., Emeis, K.C., Erlenkeuser, H., Grootes, P.M. 2003. Black Sea impact on the formation of eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1? Evidence from the Marmara Sea. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 190:9-21.

Staubwasser, M., Weiss, H. 2006. Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistoric-early historic West Asia - Introduction. Quaternary Research, 66:372-387.

Stevens, L.R., Ito, E., Schwalb, A., Wright, H.E. 2006. Timing of atmospheric precipitation in the Zagros Mountains inferred from a multi-proxy record from Lake Mirabad, Iran. Quaternary Research, 66:494-500.

Stevens, L.R., Wright, H.E., Ito, E. 2001. Proposed changes in seasonality of climate during the Lateglacial and Holocene at Lake Zeribar, Iran. The Holocene, 11:747-755.

Touchan, R., Akkemik, U., Hughes, M.K., Erkan, N. 2007. May-June precipitation reconstruction of Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey during the last 900 years from tree rings. Quaternary Research, 68:196-202.

Touchan, R., Hughes, M.K. 1999. Dendrochronology in Jordan. Journal of Arid Environments, 42:291-303.

Touchan, R., Xoplaki, E., Funkhouser, G., Luterbacher, J., Hughes, M.K., Erkan, N., Akkemik, U., Stephan, J. 2005. Reconstructions of spring/summer precipitation for the Eastern Mediterranean from tree-ring widths and its connection to large-scale atmospheric circulation. Climate Dynamics, 25:75- 98.

Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Matthews, A., Frumkin, A., Dayan, U., Halicz, L., Almogi-Labin, A., Schilman, B. 2006. Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 249:384-399.

Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Schilman, B., Gilmour, M., Hawkesworth, C.J., Frumkin, A., Kaufman, A., Matthews, A. 2003. Paleoclimate reconstruction based on the timing of speleothem growth and oxygen and carbon isotope composition in a cave located in the rain shadow in Israel. Quaternary Research, 59:182-193.

Wilson, G.P., Reed, J.M., Lawson, I.T., Frrogley, M.R., Preece, R.C., Tzedakis, P.C. 2008. Diatom response to the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition in the Ioannina basin, northwest Greece: implications for Mediterranean palaeoclimate reconstruction. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27:428-440.

Zalat, A., Vildary, S.S. 2007. Environmental change in Northern Egyptian Delta lakes during the late Holocene, based on diatom analysis. Journal of Paleolimnology, 37:273-299.




Frame 2a. Mesopotamia and Egypt: References Bonacossi, Daniele Morandi (ed.), Qatna I: Urban and Natural Landscapes of an Ancient Syrian Capital, Settlement and Environment at Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna and in Central-Western Syria, Studi Archeologici su Qatna - SAQ 1, Forum Editrice 2008.

Gasche, H. (ed.), “The Persian Gulf Shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun, and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach, First Progress Report,” Akkadica 125/2 (2004) 141-215.

Gasche, H. (ed.), “The Persian Gulf Shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun, and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach, First Progress Report - Part 2,” Akkadica 126/1 (2005) 1-43.

Gasche, H. (ed.), “The Persian Gulf Shorelines and the Karkheh, Karun, and Jarrahi Rivers: A Geo-Archaeological Approach, First Progress Report - Part 3,” Akkadica 128/1-2 (2007) 1-72.

Gasche, Hermann & Tanret, Michel, Changing Watercourses in Babylonia: Towards a Reconstruction of the Ancient Environment in Lower Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian History and Environment, Series II, Memoirs V, University of Ghent and Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 1998.

Gibson, McGuire, The City and Area of Kish, Miami, Florida 1972.

Hritz, Carrie, “The Hidden Landscape of Southern Mesopotamia,” Akkadica 125 (2004) 93-106.

Margueron, Jean-Claude, Aux origines du plan de Babylone, FS J.-L. Hout, Études Mésopotamiennes (2001) 323-345.

Nützel, Werner, Einführung in die Geo-Archäologie des Vorderen Orients, Reichert Verlag: Wiesbaden 2004.

Pedersén, Olof, Archive und Bibliotheken in Babylon: Die Tontafeln der Grabung Robert Koldeweys 1899-1917, Abhandlungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 25 (2005).

Pientka, Rosel, Die Spätaltbabylonische Zeit: Abiešuh bis Samsuditana, Quellen, Jahresdaten, Geschichte, Teil 1-2, IMGULA 2, 1998.

Sirocko, Frank, “The evolution of the monsoon climate over the Arabian Sea during the last 24,000 years,” Palaeoecology of Africa 24 (1996) 53-69.

Staubwasser, Michael, & Weiss, Harvey, “Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistoric–early historic West Asia,” Quaternary Research (2006).

Weiss, H. et al., “The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization,” Science 261 (1993) 995-1004.

Wilkinson, T. J., Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East, The University of Arizona Press: Tucson 2003

Frame 2b. Liveable landscapes in prehistoric Greece
A Late Geometric kantharos, Kerameikos Museum (Late Iron Age, 8th century), and a ivory plaque from Tegea (Late Iron Age, 7th century). Cultural and esthetical values were transmitted and exchanged within and between regions. The result can be seen in the changing trends in figurative art work. Illustration: Gullög Nordquist, photo, and, Mary Voyatzis, photo).



Dickinson, O., The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: continuity and change between the twelfth and eigth centuries BC, Oxon 2006.

Cullen, T. (ed.), Aegean prehistory: a review (American Journal of Archaeology, Suppl. 1), Boston 2001.

Preziosi, D. and L.A. Hitchcock, Aegean art and architecture, Oxford 1999.

Morris, I., Archaeology as cultural history: words and things in Iron Age Greece, Oxford 2000.

Morris, I. & B.B. Powell, The Greeks: history, culture, and society, Upper Saddle River, N.J. 2006.

Thomas, C.G. and Conant, C., Citadel to city-state: the transformation of Greece, 1200-700 B. C. E., Bloomington 1999.

Morgan, C., Early Greek states beyond the polis, London 2003.


Aufrecht, W.E., N.A. Mirau and S.W. Gauley (ed.), Aspects of urbanism in Antiquity: from Mesopotamia to Crete (Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Suppl. 244), Sheffield 1997.

Branigan, K. (ed.), Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age (Sheffield studies in Aegean archaeology, 4), Sheffield 2001.

Ucko, P.J., R. Tringham and G.W. Dimbleby (eds.), Man, settlement and urbanism, Cambridge 1972.

Cowgill, G.L., ‘Origins and development of urbanism: Archaeological perspectives’, Annual Review of Anthropology 33, 2004, 525-549.

Cultural and environmental resilience

Kardulias, P.N. and M.T. Shutes (eds), Aegean Strategies: studies of culture and environment on the European fringe, Lanham 1997.

Kardulias, P.N. (ed.), Beyond the site: regional studies in the Aegean Area, London 1994.

Bintliff, J., ‘Regional survey, demography, and the rise of complex societies in the Ancient Aegean: Core-periphery, neo-Malthusian, and other interpretative models’, in Journal of Field Archaeology 24, 1997, 1-38.

Rackham, O. and Moody, J., The making of the Cretan landscape, Manchester 1996.

Fagan, B., The long summer: how climate changed civilization, New York 2004.

Diamond, J., Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed, New York 2005.

Butzner, K.W., ‘Enviromental history in the Mediterranean world: cross-disciplinary investigation of cause-and-effect for degradation and soil erosion’, Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 2005, 1773-1800.