JAAH 2013 No. 10 Lindholm et al.

Karl-Johan Lindholm, Emil Sandström & Ann-Kristin Ekman,

The Archaeology of the Commons

Fulltext (DIVA-länk)

Redaktionskommitténs loggbok med granskarnas kommentarer

Illustrationer

Fig.1 Map of northern Europe showing the location of the study area. Map data © Esri and as indicated in bottom right of the map.

Fig. 2 Map of the study area showing the location of the villages Ängersjö, Älvros, Ytterhogdal and Överhogdal, parish boundaries and land cover. Yellow; open land, light blue; water surface, brown; mires, green; forest. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901

Fig. 3 The environmental setting. The environment is characterised by the boreal forest, which cover a hilly and undulating topography interspersed by numerous lakes, rivers, streams and mires. Photo: Karl-Johan Lindholm.

Fig. 4 Exposure of the pitfall system RAÄ Älvros 174. Photo: Karl-Johan Lindholm.

Fig. 5 The distribution of the 564 archaeological sites that has been associated with cooperative forms of land-use. Map data © Lant- mäteriet, i2012/901 © Swedish National Heritage Board ́s database for archaeological sites and
monuments, FMIS

Fig. 6 The distribution of 531 place names considered as reflecting the same activities as compiled in the archaeological database. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901

Fig. 7 A combined point distribution of archaeological sites and place names associated with co-
operative forms of land-use. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901 © Swedish National Heritage Board ́s database for archaeological sites and monuments, FMIS.

Fig. 8 A more generalised view of the archaeological point distribution done by a kernel density, which reflects the intensity of cooperatively undertaken activities in the landscape. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901 © Swedish National Heritage Board ́s database for archaeological sites and monuments, FMIS.

Fig. 9 A more generalised view of the place name point distribution done by a kernel density, which reflects the intensity of cooperatively undertaken activities in the landscape. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901 © Swedish National Heritage Board ́s database for archaeological sites and monuments, FMIS.

Fig. 10 The kernel density of the combined dataset of archaeological sites and place names. The combined kernel density indicates that the apparent feature of the distribution is that the majority of the archaeological sites and place names are distributed outside the nearest vicinity of the historical villages. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901

Fig. 11 The result of the statistical analysis using spatial autocorrelation Moran’s I. A) The ar-
chaeological sites are clustered B) The place names are randomly distributed. C) The combined
data set of cooperatively undertaken activities — as reflected in archaeology and place names
— is clustered within the research area. Moreover these clusters are not randomly distributed;
they are constituted on the same nodes of the landscape and reflect a duality of landscape.

Fig. 12 Diagrams illustrating the structure of the database used for the GIS-analyses. A)
Large game hunting and iron production is well represented in the archaeology. B) Livestock
production is the main activity reflected in the place names. C) In the combined data-set
livestock herding counts for almost half of the data. D) Percentages of representation in ar-
chaeology and place names according to activity. The archaeology seems to reflect place bound
activities constituted on relatively fixed points in the landscape. Place names reflect mobility
associated with the exploitation of localised and widespread fodder resources.

Fig. 13 Diagram illustrating the landscape organisation of the permanent field-and-meadow
system.

Fig. 14 .Illustrates the modelled kernel densities and the combined data-set. Multifunctionality and regulated use are
considered as significant traits of commons in current common pool-theory and hence it seems possible to pinpoint
some certain aspects of the forest’s archaeology, which can be taken as distinguishing features of commons

Fig. 15 Diagram illustrating the landscape organisation of the Hälsinge law. The Hälsinge Law
(c. 1320 AD) regulate the use of the commons. The law express that land extending from the
village inlands up to the “flat keel” – i.e. the crests of the surrounding highlands – were village
land. The lands and water sloping away from “flat keel” are commons.

Fig. 16 The villagers land according to the Hälsinge law, i.e. the down-sloping land based on water catchment areas. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901

Fig. 17 The present day property map projected on the modelled kernel densities. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901 © Swedish National Heritage Board database for archaeological sites and monuments, FMIS

Fig. 18 The standard deviation of property area, present day commons compared with the modelled commons represented by the kernel densities. The map denotes a topology of commons implying a historically rooted landscape,
a complex social and ecological structure that marks the actual context of past and present praxis. Map data © Lantmäteriet, i2012/901 © Swedish National Heritage Board ́s database for archaeological sites and monuments, FMIS.

Fig. 19 Places mentioned in the discussion. Map data © Esri and as indicated in bottom right of the map.

Fig. 20 Diagram based on a compilation of chronological indications that can be associated to
commons.

Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-15