JAAH 2011 No. 1 Ekblom et al.

Anneli Ekblom, Lindsey Gillson and Michel Notelid,

A Historical Ecology of the Limpopo and Kruger National Parks and Lower Limpopo Valley

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Fig 1 Limpopo valley and the archaeological sites and localities discussed in the text

Fig 2 Location of palaeo-ecological sites, core locations abbreviated (left), main rivers
(centre) and land use for Limpopo National Park and northern Kruger National Park
(right). Photos by A. Ekblom and M. Notelid.

Fig 3 a-e Summary diagrams of all the sequences discussed in the text showing (from left
to right) age depth (vertical axes) lithology (column), the number of degraded pollen
grains and the percentage distribution of pollen from trees/shrubs (dark grey), grass
(light grey), cereals and possible cereals (black), herbs (white) and
ungrouped/undetermined (hatched). Main ecological groupings of pollen taxa are also
shown. Locations of 14C dates in the profile are marked by x (see also Table 2 in
Appendix). Black silhouettes show the contributions of riparian, savanna and generalist
taxa in tree tree/shrub group. Black bars show microscopic charcoal concentration. The
isotopic sequence from Makapansgat valley (after Tyson et al. 2002) and the inferred
changes in temperatures/rainfall are shown (upper right) for comparison.

Fig 3 f-j

Fig 4 Archaeological sites in KNP and PNL, detail of northern KNP and PNL to the
right showing the sites in relation to roads and rivers. Data for KNP were provided by
Sanparks, based on rock art inventories carried out by C. de Rosner, and C. de
Rosner, and M. English. Note that the surveys by Birkholtz in 1997 in the south-west
part of KNP are not shown. Sites listed by Plug (2000) in northern KNP have been
added. The PNL sites were located in 2006 during surveys by A. Ekblom and M.
Notelid and have not previously been published.

Fig 5 a-c Pollen diagrams of sequences from Lake Mapimbi (a), Chixuludzi pan (b)
and Chinyangani spring (c). Vertical axes show (from left to right), dated levels (X),
depth (cm from surface), estimated age depth (age AD), and the lithology with legend
below. Horizontal axes show the percentage distribution of the more common pollen
taxa, possible cereal and maize pollen and degraded grains. A summary pollen diagram
displaying the main physiognomy is shown in the centre (dark grey silhouette: AP,
grey: grasses, black: cereals, white: herbs, shaded: ungrouped/unknown) with main
ecological groupings of tree-shrub taxa; riparian, savanna, generalist. To the right, the
more common coprophilous spore taxa are shown and a summary of the distribution
of coprophilous/non coprophilous spore types by per cent. Black bars show the influx
of microscopic and macroscopic charcoal (cm2/year). The influx of both trees/shrubs
(black silhouette) – other pollen taxa (grey silhouette) and coprophilous (black
silhouette) – non-coprophilous spore taxa area (grey silhouette) are shown to the right.

Table 1 Summary of socio-political changes in the coastal Mozambique region and
the interior in relation to local events, as suggested by the palaeo-ecological records
and archaeology, as well as climate history (Tyson et al. 2002, Holmgren et al. 2003)
and the summary of written documents presented in Ekblom and Stabell (2008).
Dates of droughts marked by * refers to written documents.

Table 2 14 C dates and 210 Pb series for all PNL and KNP sequences. All 14
C dates have been calibrated in Bcal with the exception of 19th century dates, where OxCal have been used (indicated by an *). Dates marked by ** should be regarded as modern.

Plate 1 a) The landscape of the dry interior, near Radio pan, PNL, b) Riparian
vegetation near Pafuri, PNL, c) Grasslands near Lake Maludzi, PNL, d) Typical
mopane shrub, PNL

Last modified: 2022-02-11